What You Need to Read

August 1, 2018


Here is a reading list from a wide variety of sources - scholars, community sourced blog posts, articles in newspapers, and theorists. Reading these will help you think about the historic and continuing violence against margin


alized people, discourses of Canadian history, and media attention spans and focuses. 


What's Going On in Canada: 


1 Anti-Racist Canada, A History of Violence 1960-2018. 


This is an in-depth look at all known hate crimes in Canada, from 1960


to the present. Hate crimes are not new to Canada, but are increasing with ferocity.


2. Islamophobia in Canada, by the Noor Cultural Centre. 


This is a report submitted to the Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage, after the passage of Bill M-103, which condemned Islamophobia. Among the assembled findings, the report noted that "A study of the Globe and Mail by communication studies professor Yasmin Jiwani found sixty-six articles on the Shafia case alone (which was widely represented as an “honour killing”), but only fifty-nine on the “murder of women and domestic violence” in general from 2005 to 2012." Further the report notes that "the Quebec mosque shooting (January 2017) received approximately five minutes of airtime on CBC’s flagship news program, The National, the night that it occurred – while the London Borough attacks in the UK (June 2017) received several hours of live reportage and commentary. Searches for terms related to the Quebec mosque shooting on the websites of the CBC, the Globe and Mail, and the Toronto Star yielded 194 relevant results, in contrast to 768 for the Boston Marathon bombing – even though the Quebec mosque shooting occurred in Canada, and was more fatal." (4,5). 


3. Barbara Perry, Disrupting the Mantra of Multiculturalism, Hate Crime in Canada


Renowned scholar Barbara Perry looks at the veneer of multiculturalism in Canada, and wonders how we can turn multiculturalism into a critical discourse. She provides a timeline of 'multiculturalism' in Canada: 


1947 Passage of the first ever Canadian Citizenship Act

 1960 Passage of the Canadian Bill of Rights

1963 Establishment of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism

19 69 Book IV of the Bilingualism and Biculturalism Commission Report emphasizes

the bilingual and multicultural nature of Canada

1969 Introduction of the Official Languages Act

1971 Introduction of Canada’s Multiculturalism Policy

1977 Passage of the Canadian Human Rights Act

 1982 Adoption of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

 19 84 Special Parliamentary Committee Report, Equality Now, calls for a Multiculturalism Act and establishment of a national research institute on multiculturalism

and race relations issues

1986 Passage by Parliament of the Employment Equity Act

 1988 Passage of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act

 1996 Government establishes the Canadian Race Relations Foundation

1997 Renewed Multiculturalism Program announced


4. The National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women, from the Status of Women Canada 


5. U of T Scholars Reflect on the Quebec Mosque Shooting a Year After 


6. Hate crimes targeting Muslims doubled in 2017, says Quebec City police chief


The number of police-reported hate crimes or hateful incidents targeting Muslim people or institutions doubled in the last year, according to Quebec City Police Chief Robert Pigeon...There have been several incidents involving the Islamic Cultural Centre, the site of the shooting, that police have resisted labelling as hate crimes.In July, a defaced Qur'an and a hateful note were mailed to the mosque. That incident was deemed an "incident" rather than a full-fledged hate crime.One month later, the car belonging to the head of the mosque was set on fire outside his home. The Islamic centre was also the target of xenophobic messages and vandalism prior to the shooting, such as when a gift-wrapped pig's head was left at the mosque's doorstep."


7. The Efforts to Get Jan 29th as a Day of Remembrance 


"One of Canada's most prominent Muslim groups is asking Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to designate the anniversary of the 2017 Quebec City mosque shooting as an official day of remembrance.The National Council of Canadian Muslims wants Trudeau to endorse Jan. 29 as a national day of remembrance and action on Islamophobia. In a letter to the prime minister released today, executive director Ihsaan Gardee says such a designation would help enhance public education about hate, bigotry and Islamophobia."


8. Uneasy Alliances: A Look at the Right-Wing Extremist Movement in Canada 


While there is little scholarship on the so-called alt-right in Canada, Barbara Perry and Ryan Scrivens provide an in-depth look at its current state, writing"...The core tenets [of the Right-Wing Extremist movement] are : (a) the valorizing of inequality and hierarchy, especially along racial/ ethnic lines; (b) ethnic nationalism lined to a mono-racial community; and (c) radical means to achieve aims and defend the “imagined” community."


Old, But Important: 


1. Canadian Multiculturalism Policy, 1971


The Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 provides a brief look at the policy of multiculturalism Prime Minister Pierre introduced in 1971. 


2. The Vertical Mosaic, John Porter


This was a ground-breaking book when first released in 1965, which looked at social and racial inequality in Canada.  


3. Why I Killed Canadian History, Timothy J. Stanley


"Has racism been integral to the making of Canadian society and institutions, or has it been incidental, episodic, and idiosyncratic? Is it part and parcel of the main story of the making of Canada, or is it only worthy of passing mention and a few specialized monographs?...Nationalist histories have not only failed to explain racisms; they have failed to adequately document racisms and their consequences...An alternative to nationalist frameworks, what I call an anti-racist history, draws on the contemporary body of literature known as anti-racism or critical multiculturalism." (80)


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